Category Archives: hacking

The Incredibly Insecure Weather Station – Part 2

I contacted the manufacturer in regards to these issues. They responded quickly. I wasn’t expecting anything to be done about the issues that I brought up, but they did do something…

I logged into my weather station yesterday, an lo and behold, there is an update. Most notably the following, “added password encryption for HTTP transmission.”

Screenshot from the app itself showing the update notes.

Encryption for the password during HTTP transmission? What does this even mean? HTTPS? Why wouldn’t they just say HTTPS? Just encrypting the password client side and sending it to the station for decryption? That seems odd. I was hoping for HTTPS, but I would soon be let down.

curl request from before and after the ‘upgrade’

Before updating, I decided to try and make the curl request as I had done before to the get_device_info endpoint. As before, the password to the system was returned.

Next, I upgraded the device and then made the same request. Would you look at that, the APpwd now does look ‘encrypted.’ But, as you may have guessed, it is actually just base 64 encoded.

V2VhdGhlcjI0Njg5 –> Weather24689

bae64 decoding

Or, using jq, you can do this all on the CLI.

I think this is a losing battle.

The Incredibly Insecure Weather Station

I recently purchased the ECOWITT GW1102 Home Weather Station. It’s exactly what it sounds like – a mini weather station for your house. It has all the usual sensors you’d expect a weather station to have, and I’m actually very pleased with the hardware, considering the cheap price.

However, it is missing one thing – software security. But really, what did I expect from a cheap home weather station?

Comically, the landing page of the weather station’s server gives an illusion of some sort of security.

Password goes here.

Let’s intercept a request of us logging in.

Don’t steal my password.

This is all over HTTP. We post our password to /set_login_info – which seems like an odd endpoint for logging in. Notice the response does not set any cookies or seem like it actually does any sort of verification. Hmmm.

Anyway, after logging in, we are directed to /liveData.html. This page does exactly what its name implies. But let’s look at the links on the side of the page – particularly the Local Network link.

Click the Local Network link on the left-hand side.

If we intercept the requests in Burp after we click the Local Network link, we see a call to a /get_network_info endpoint. This returns info about the WiFi network to which the weather station is connected.

That’s my WiFi SSID and password.

Interesting. Notice again that there appears to be no authentication going on with this request. Let’s try to curl this endpoint

Uh oh.

Or how about the device password (not that you actually need the password now).

The password is now Weather24689 because I changed it without being authorized.

You can also do fun things like reboot the station, or get the user’s external weather reporting site’s API keys, etc. I notified ECOWITT support, but I’m assuming this won’t be fixed any time soon.

Edit: added this because someone didn’t understand this is an issue.

Edit: I added this picture above of the get_ws_settings endpoint. As you can see, I’m not using any authentication. You can also see I was trying some shenanigans, but nonetheless, you can also see this returns several API keys for other services, which is not a good thing to be handing out. It basically is the API endpoint for this page that is behind the ‘authentication’ of the application.

I did find some of these exposed to the internet, but I’d probably avoid that, if I were you. With that said, I actually like the hardware. It’s fun to play around with, and it is inexpensive.

MotionEye Config Info Disclosure

Edit: This was given CVE-2022-25568. As mentioned in my previous posts here and here, I’ve done a little digging into the conditions that are required for the MotioneEye config file to be world viewable, and I’ve reached this conclusion:

As long as a “user” password is not set, the config file will be world readable. Even if an “admin” password has been set, the /config/list file will still be readable by everybody. So, while someone could think they are doing the correct thing by creating a password for the admin user, they may still be leaking private information. Here is a innocuous example from a live instance:

As you can see in this picture, IP addresses/services/passwords are exposed. This is a rather innocuous example, being that it is an internal IP address, but it illustrates how this could be an issue. Imagine if those were your public FTP server credentials. Or if they were your gmail credentials for smtp notifications. The list goes on.

Along with usernames, passwords, auth keys, and email addresses, these config files also contain less sensitive information like internal network IP addresses and URLs, drive and mounting information.

In many ways this vulnerability may be worse that the MotionEye RCE vulnerability that I reported and received a CVE for. In that case, the admin password needed to be left blank (or easily guessed) for someone to get into the admin panel and achieve RCE. In this case, a user could think they’re being secure by setting an admin password, but they leave the user password blank – and the config remains viewable.

I’ve found gmail, gdrive, ftp, sftp, telegram stuff (not sure how auth works there), etc. all exposed to the WWW in these files.

I’ve submitted an issue on the MotionEye github page, but if it is anything like last time, they don’t plan on fixing it/see it as a non-issue.

Edit: The issue was closed before I even finished this post.

Edit: The issue was reopened and I submitted a pull request to fix the issue, although my fix was not tested much, so it may not work properly.

Offensive Security PEN-300 Evasion Techniques and Breaching Defenses – Course and Exam Review

You know, OffSec describes the OSEP as: “Evasion Techniques and Breaching Defenses (PEN-300) is an advanced penetration testing course”. I don’t know how advanced it is, if I can pass, lol. I generally have no idea what I’m doing.

Anyway, I really liked the course. There is a lot of material to keep you busy. Unless you’re already familiar with a large chunk of the topics, you’re probably best-served by purchasing the 90 day version of the course. The challenge labs are fun. Make sure you do them before the exam.

The exam was challenging, but fair. You should be able to figure out what you need to do next somewhat quickly, but executing it may be a different story, if you’re anything like me. Just ask yourself, “What did I just accomplish, and what does that allow me to do now?” If you’ve completed the challenge labs, you will be well-prepared for the exam. Some people say to make sure you do all the questions and extra miles in the lab manual, but I only did, I don’t know, 30% of them?

I don’t know what’s next for me. I have a voucher to do the OSED, but I’m a little burned out at this point. I’ll probably put that off until the summer – because who doesn’t like sitting inside and writing exploits when the weather is nice?

Sharpshooter, Python2.7, and Pip2 Installation

Newer versions of Linux may not come with any sort of Python 2 installed. I recently wanted to run Sharpshooter, which is a “payload creation framework for the retrieval and execution of arbitrary CSharp source code.”

Problem is, Python 2 isn’t installed by default on Ubuntu 21.xx and neither is pip2. You also need to install an older (I think) version of jsmin – at least that’s what worked for me.

Use this script to install everything and get it up and running.

if [ "$EUID" -ne 0 ]
    then echo "Run as root!"
    exit
fi

# clone sharpshooter from github
git clone https://github.com/mdsecactivebreach/SharpShooter.git

add-apt-repository universe && apt update

apt install git curl

# install python2.7 and pip2
apt install python2.7 -y
curl https://bootstrap.pypa.io/pip/2.7/get-pip.py --output get-pip.py
chmod +x ./get-pip.py
sudo python2.7 ./get-pip.py

# install correct jsmin
wget https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/17/73/615d1267a82ed26cd7c124108c3c61169d8e40c36d393883eaee3a561852/jsmin-2.2.2.tar.gz
tar xzf jsmin-2.2.2.tar.gz
python2.7 ./jsmin-2.2.2/setup.py install

Learning Go By Writing a POC for Gitlab CVE-2021-22205

I’ve been wanting to learn Go, and I learn by doing, so I decided to write a POC for CVE-2021-22205, which is fairly straightforward RCE in Gitlab that dropped a few weeks ago. My process in developing this went like this.

  1. Do thirty seconds of research to find a prior Golang POC for this CVE. I didn’t find one, but I’m sure they exist somewhere. I still would have written this, even if I found one. It would make for something to compare my poorly written code to.
  2. Start writing code. My thoughts the whole time while I was writing this were some variation of the following, “There must be a better way to do this.”
  3. Test.
  4. Rewrite.
  5. Repeat above for about 6 hours.
  6. Success!

I’m going to need more practice. I’ve been so used to python for the last ten years, moving to Golang is going to take some work.

Anyway, here is a link to my POC.

Evasion Techniques and Breaching Defenses (PEN-300) – OSEP – Initial Thoughts

I just started this course the other day. I’m already neck deep in VBA, C#, and Powershell, which I need more experience in anyway. I had to do some C# for the AWAE/OSWE and I’ve written a couple very small web apps in C#. I’ve done a very minimal amount of Powershell, though I’ve been meaning to change that.

I know a lot of people say the OSCP is lacking in Active Directory attacking, which may be true. I’d counter by saying what the OSCP doesn’t cover, PEN-300 will cover. The courses go hand in hand. My early opinion is that anybody that takes and passes the OSCP should do PEN-300

All in all, I’m pleased so far. I’m only about 1/7th of the way through the PDF, though. I have a lot to go. With all that I have going on IRL, I’m not sure I’ll be able to finish it in the two months I’m allotted – I may have to get an extension.

My plan is to pass the OSEP exam in October and then start the EXP-301 course and pass that exam by the end of the year. This is an aggressive, and probably unrealistic goal, but oh well, haha.

Anyway, I’ll be back with a full report after the exam.

Advanced Web Attacks and Exploits -AWAE – Exam Review

> AWAE Course Overview

For people unfamiliar with this course and exam, here is a link to the Offensive security website. I’ve also written about it before, so you can check my post history. Basically the course is a giant pdf and a bunch of videos that go over web application attacks. You then get access to a lab consisting of 13 machines that are running a wide variety of vulnerable web-apps. In regards to languages/DBs/tech, this course covers VSCode, Visual Studio, JDGui, Javascript, PHP, Node, Python, Java, C#, mysql, and postgres – so it’s pretty thorough.

The exam is a 48 hour long exam where they give you access to two machines running vulnerable web-apps. You have to bypass auth on them to get administrator access and then escalate your attack to full-blown remote code execution. You’ll get two debugging machines that are running the same apps as the exam machines. You get full access to the app source code – this is a white-box course after all. You have to review the code base, and then use these debugging machines to develop ‘one-shot’ exploit script that bypasses auth and trigger RCE. I used python, as do most people, I think.

Oh yeah, and they watch you on camera the whole time.

After the exam time is up, assuming you have enough points to pass, you have another 24 hours to write an exam report documenting what you found and how you exploited it.

> How did it go?

First things first: I had to take this one twice. My power went out twice, briefly, and my father had to go to the hospital (he’s fine) during my first attempt. Even though he lives hours away, and there wasn’t much I could do, I was a little distracted. And it wasn’t like I was in front of the computer for the full 48 hours. I took a break about every 1.5 hours or so and slept 5-6 hours both nights.

Nevertheless, I still managed RCE on one of the boxes, and if I had another hour or so, I would have had an auth bypass on the second box – which would likely have let me pass. I look back and I just kind of laugh at how I failed it. I missed something simple that would have given me enough points to pass. I even knew what I needed – I just overlooked it.

I actually noticed the vulns on both boxes within an hour of looking at them. I then went down some rabbit holes for a bit and got sidetracked – especially on the box that I considered the harder one.

The second time around I crushed the exam in about 8 hours – RCE on both boxes. I had my report turned in at the 20 hour mark or so – and I was lollygagging.

If you don’t know me, my background is this: I’m not a professional developer. I don’t work in IT. I have never worked in IT. I just like computers. If I can pass this exam, so can you.

> Advice and Review

My advice for people that are preparing to take this exam is to just take their time and read the code. You need to know how to get the VSCode debugging going. It is a lifesaver. It is probably hard to pass if you don’t get it working. If you follow the code flow in a debugger, things should pop out at you. With that said, they do throw in a couple curve balls, which I bet throws some people for a loop. Now these curve balls aren’t hard to hit, per se, but someone that hasn’t been in the infosec/CTF/bug bounty world may miss these things.

Another question that I’ve been asked is, “Do you need an OSCP to do this couse?” I’ve changed my mind on this several times, and while I think an OSCP will give you a leg up, you don’t really need to have one – especially if you’re already involved the hacking/bug bounty/CTF world. If you’re coming at it straight from being a developer, it may not hurt to expose yourself to this stuff beforehand.

All in all, I’d say the exam was fair and maybe a little on the easy side. I say that as someone that failed it once, too, haha. But not only that, the exam is also a lot of fun. I love the Offensive Security exams. Some people will probably hate me for saying that, but they are a lot of fun.

CVE-2021-35959 Stored XSS in Folder Contents on Plone 5-5.2.4

I’ve been testing some new Python-based CMSs and CMS-like software. I’ve heard of Plone before, but I never had a chance to check it out until now. I was a couple of days into my experimenting when I ran across this issue.

I have to say, the Plone team’s response was great. I got an almost immediate response from the security team, and a hotfix was pushed less than a week later.

Please see the following links for more information.

Malicious qBittorrent Search Plugin: Feature or Bug?

TLDR: Read the code before you install random qbittorent plug-ins.

qBittorrent has a feature that allows you to install a search plugin to search for torrents on your favorite sites. These plugins are written in Python, and although I haven’t reviewed the qBittorrent source code, it appears as if you can simply execute arbitrary code via these plugins. qBittorrent does not seem to do any sort of sanitization.

I added a reverse shell class to an already existing search plugin. The shell should work on Windows and Linux. Although, qBittorrent seems to have some issues with what version of Python you are using. Nevertheless, be aware that unsanitized code can be ran via the search plugin feature.

Here is a link to the malicious qBittorrent search plugin.